Pig farming is a profitable economic activity provided that it controls a certain number of parameters, including housing, reproduction, feeding, health and the technical and economic management of animals.
A good breeder must:
- be calm and love animals,
- be a good observer,
- know how to keep a record of animal performance,
- be able to comply with strict decisions.
General about pork and its productions
Domestic pigs are probably from wild boars from Europe (Sus Scrofa) and wild pigs from Asia (Sus Vittatus).
1.2. Advantages of pig farming
Pork is an omnivorous (eat-all) monogastric that transforms a wide variety of non-man-made agricultural products and byproducts into higher quality meat products.
It is a very fast growing animal. It takes just 6 to 7 months to bring a piglet 1.2 kg (birth) to 90-100 kg.
It is a very prolific animal: 7 to 12 piglets at birth and with 2 farrowing / year, you can wean 14 to 18 piglets per sow and per year.
It is the only domestic animal with a high carcass yield:
- pork: 73-75%
- poultry: (broiler chicken) 64-65%
- sheep: 50-51%
- goat: 44-45%
- rabbit: 48-50%
- beef: 49-50%
It does not require an important space to grow: 5 to 6 m² per boar (male) and 9 to 12m² per sow (female) with its young.
It produces meat without contributing to the deterioration of natural pastures and crops.
He does not ask me for a large capital * to start the activity.
It is for the farmer an important savings for the resolution of social problems: schooling, marriage and funerals, etc ...
It contributes to the fertilization of the soil through its droppings. An adult pig can produce 600-730 kg of organic manure per year.
1.3. Disadvantages of pig farming
- Direct competition with humans for food, particularly cereals (maize) and oilseeds (soybeans),
- Religious constraint: Muslims do not eat pork,
- Pig farming near homes causes a pollution problem because of droppings,
- Zoonosis: some pork parasites are likely to attack humans, therefore a threat to health,
- High sensitivity to diseases (P.P.A.)
Pork is an animal that does not sweat and withstands very high temperatures, however the piglet at birth is very sensitive to cold, hence the importance of the types of buildings to put in place in hot weather.
2 .1. Choice of the site
- Choose areas where natural ventilation is effective (peak, slope, etc ...),
- Orient the buildings in the East-West direction,
- The proximity of a good water supply.
- The best buildings are generally cemented and widely open on the sides. Never raise pigs on bare ground, for lack of cemented soil, a soil on board on stilts is necessary,
- The walls separating the boxes and constructed of hardwood, blocks, earthen brick or Chinese bamboo must be at 1.30 m from the ground,
- The floor must be slightly inclined to facilitate the flow of cleaning water,
- Each lodge must have a sleeping area and an exercise area. The sleeping surface must be covered with sheets, straw or mat. The uncovered exercise surface must be wide enough to facilitate the movement and defecation of animals,
- Provide a service corridor 1.5m wide with a footbath at the entrance and exit of each building.
There are 4 types of lodge in a pigsty:
1. fattening box,
2. waiting room protruding,
3. maternity wards,
4. boar lodge (verraterie)
- The fattening lodge makes it possible to group the piglets to feed them up to the slaughter weight. 5 to 10 piglets / lodge,
- Waiting lodges allow to gather the young sow empty waiting for the projection: 3 to 5 sows per lodge,
- Maternity lodges are lodges designed for birthing. They contain iron or wood bars attached to the wall 10-15 cm above the ground to protect the piglets from crushing the sow during lactation.
A small box can be designed in the maternity for a special distribution of the piglet food from the second week,